K.M. Glass, E. van Santen, and K. Bowen
Advisor, Natl. Res. Prog. and Professor, Dept. of Agronomy and Soils and Professor, Dept. of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, AL 36849.
The large number of commercially available varieties of wheat, oat, barley, and triticale makes it difficult for growers to select varieties most suited for their particular area of the State. Making this decision requires up-to-date, unbiased, reliable information on varietal yields and characteristics. This report is published annually to provide Alabama growers with this information. Entries in each experiment are determined by the companies or institutes which control each variety or line, not by experiment station personnel. Data from tests conducted at eight locations were used to compile this report and they represent the varied growing conditions farmers experience around the State.
The experimental design for the tests was a split plot design with species as the main plot and varieties as subplots. Plots were 5 feet by 20 feet with rows spaced 7 inches apart. A cone drill was used to plant all tests in the State. Each variety was replicated three times in each test. Grain only: These tests are normally planted during late October to early November, which is approximately one month later than the forage tests. Planting dates for all tests in 2012 are shown in Table 1. All tests were fertilized with P and K according to soil test, plus 20 pounds N per acre at planting. A top dressing of 60 pounds N per acre was made in late February or early March, just prior to jointing. The plots were not sprayed to control disease, so that the varieties could be rated for their inherent disease resistance. The grain was allowed to mature and was harvested with a plot combine, then cleaned and weighed. Moisture and bushel test weight were measured. Forage only: A forage test was not conducted during the 2012-2013 crop year.
Grain yields were calculated by weighing air-dried grain and using 60 pounds per bushel for wheat, 32 pounds per bushel for oat, 48 pounds per bushel for barley, 50 pounds per bushel for triticale. Lodging was measured as the percent of plants in the stand broken or leaning that would likely be missed by a combine. Height was measured from the ground to the top of the grain head. The 1/10 headed date is the date when approximately 10 percent of a plot showed fully emerged heads. Disease ratings for the 2012-2013 variety trials for wheat, oats, and barley are summarized by region in Tables ___. Diseases were rated by members of the Dept. of Entomology and Plant Pathology; specifically, R. Trey Prevatt, Graduate Assistant, rated diseases at Headland, and helped at other sites. At all other sites in the south (Fairhope and Brewton), central (Tallassee, Marion Junction, and Prattville) and northern (Belle Mina and Crossville) regions, diseases were rated by Dr. K. L. Bowen, Professor of Plant Pathology, with additional assistance from Andrea Nelson. Rust diseases are rated on a severity scale ranging from 0 to 100, indicating the proportion of the flag leaves that are affected across the plot. All other diseases are rated on a scale of 0 to 9, where 0 indicates no disease, 4-5 reflects about half of the plants are moderately affected, and 9 = severe disease affecting all plants in plot. Diseases were rated as close to soft dough as could be scheduled.